Geographical overview of INDIA : Geography of INDIA

By | December 18, 2017

Geographical location of INDIA

India is geographically situated in Asia. It lies in the south of the Asia so called as south Asian country. It is located in northern hemisphere. Some facts about India is given.

  • Area of India is 3,287,264 km Area wise INDIA is seventh largest country in world.
  • Coordinate of India’s location is 21 degree north and 78 degree east.
  • India’s neighbor countries are Nepal, Bhutan, China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Srilanka, Afghanistan.
  • India has three sides surrounded by oceans. In east Bay of Bengal, in south Indian Ocean, in west Arabian Sea.
  • Highest peak in India is Kanchenjunga (8856 M). Lowest point is Kuttanad (-2.2 M).
  • Southernmost point of india is Indira point(Great Nicobar). Western most part is Guhar Moti kutch (Gujrat).
  • Tropic of cancer crosses from India.

Physical geography of India

Geographically India is very diverse country. It has almost all the physiographic features. India has mountains, planes, plateau, desert and coastal area. Based on geographic feature we can divide India in six parts.

  1. Great mountain of north
  2. Northern plain
  3. Peninsular plateau
  4. Desert
  5. Islands
  6. Coastal plain

Great Mountain of North

Himalayan Mountain is in north part of India. It is about 2400 km long. Himalayan range has three ranges these are Himadri(greater Himalaya), Himachal(lesser Himalaya), Shiwalik(outer Himalaya).

  • Himadri

It is the northern most part of Himalaya. Average height of the range is 6000m. It consists of most of the highest peaks such as Everest, Kanchenjunga etc.

  • Himachal

This range lies between Himadri and Siwalik range. Average height of the range is 4000m. Many hill stations are located in Himachal range.

  • Siwalik

It is the outermost range of the Himalaya. Average height of the range is 1000m. Valleys which lie between Himachal and Siwalik are called as Duns.


Northern plains

Northern plains are located between the great northern mountains and peninsular plateau. These plains are formed by three major rivers Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra. These plains are in Punjab, Bihar, UP, Haryana, West Bengal, Assam. These plains are very fertile. These plains can be divided in three regions like Punjab plains, Ganges plain, Brahmaputra plain.

  • Punjab plain is formed by Indus and its tributaries Jhelum, Ravi, Sutlej, Beas, Chenab. This plain is in Punjab and Haryana
  • Ganges plain is formed by Ganga and its tributaries. Ganges plain is the largest plain in India this plain lie in UP, Delhi, Bihar, Haryana, West Bengal
  • Brahmaputra plain is formed by Brahmaputra and its tributaries. It is known as Assam plain and lies mostly in Assam.

On the basis of physical feature northern plains are divided in four regions

  1. Bhabar region- It lies in the foothills of Himalaya and 8-16km wide. This region mostly contains stones and pebbles. River flows very fast in this region.
  2. Terai region- lies in south of Bhabar it is 15-30km wide. This region is covered by forest and good for cultivation.
  3. Bangar region- It lies in south of Terai region, it is higher part of the plain. It is less fertile and made up of coarser sediments.
  4. Khadar region- It lies in south of Bangar and lowest part of plain. It is fertile land and made up of new alluvium. This region is very prone to flood.

Peninsular Plateau

Shape of peninsular plateau is almost triangular it starts from the southern edge of the northern plane and Kanyakumari is the apex. The average height of the plateau is 600-900 meter. Heighest peak of the peninsular plateau is Anamudi(2695m) in Kerala. Peninsular plateau can be divided in two parts

  • Central highland, 2) Deccan plateau

Central highland- It is situated to the north of the Narmada River. Central highland consist Malwa plateau, Chotanapur plateau, Meghalaya plateau, Vindhya Range and Arawali range. Highest peak is Gugushikhar(1722m).

Deccan plateau- Deccan plateau is surrounded by Satpura range in north, western ghat in west and eastern ghat in east. Andhra plateau, Karnataka plateau, Maharashtra plateau comes in Deccan plateau.

Kaveri and Godawari are main rivers of Deccan plateau which flow west to east.

Indian Desert

Thar Desert

Thar is the India’s only desert major part of the desert lies in the state of Rajasthan; some portion is in Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Pakistan. Rann of Kutch, Gujrat is in the Indian desert.

Coastal Plains

Costal planes of India are situated along the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. These are divided as eastern and western costal planes.

Eastern coastal plain- It is 1100km long along Bay of Bengal. Eastern coastal plains are divided in two parts which is Northern Circas between Krishna and Mahanadi. Other part is Coromandal coast which lies between Krishna and Kaveri.

Western coastal plain- It straches 1400 km along Arabian Sea. It is divided in four parts which are Kankan coast, Kannda plain, Malabar Coast and Gujrat coast.

Indian Islands

India has two groups of island Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep.

Andaman and Nicobar- located in Bay of Bengal. India’s only active volcano is situated in barren island of Andaman.

Lakshadweep- It lies in Arabian Sea. Presently it consists of 36 islands.














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