All about Government of India Act 1858/1919/1935

By | August 19, 2017

What are Government of India Act

There are three Government of India Acts were passed by the British Parliament for the efficient administration of India first government of India Act was passed in 1858 and the second one came in 1919 and third came in 1935 Indian Independence Act was in 1947 .We will see in detail about all the Government of India Acts.

Government of India Act 1858

  • Indian administration was transferred to British crown from company.
  • Post of court of director and board of control abolished so the double government introduced by Pitt’s India Act 1784 was ended.
  • Post of secretary of state for India was created.
  • Governor General was to be called the Viceroy he was direct representative of the crown in India.
  • Centralized administrative structure was created.

Government of India Act 1919

To increase the participation of Indians in to the Government of India British Parliament passed Government of India Act 1919 . this act consisted Reforms suggested by Edwin Montague {Secretary of State for India} and Lord Chelmsford {Viceroy and Governor General}. It is also called as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.This act introduces responsible government in India.

A detailed report on Constitutional Reforms in India (Montague-Chelmsford) Report was published on 8th July, 1918. This report became the basis of Government of India Act 1919. Key features of this report were as follows

  • India to remain as an integral part of British Empire.
  • Gradual decentralization of authority with loosening the supreme hold of the central government.
  • Subject of Administration were divided into two categories one is central and other is provincial important subjects like Railways and Finance were under Central category.
  • Dyarchyi system introduced in the provinces
  • The provincial subjects of Administration were divided into two categories one is transferred and other is reserved subject
  • Transferred subjects were administered by the Governor why the age of ministers of the Legislative Council
  • Rserved subject (Rail, Finance, law and order, post) were administered by the governor and his executive Council
  • Indian legislature became bicameral
  • Secretary of state for India now to be paid from that is revenue.

Government of India Act 1935

Government of India Act 1935 was passed by British Parliament in August 1935. With 321 sections and 10 schedules, It was the longest act passed by British Parliament and was later split into two parts  Government of India Act 1935 and Government of Burma Act 1935.Important key features given below

  • This act  provided the concept of making of the Federation of India comprising British Indian provinces and princely states although the Federation did not come into existence because joining of princely states was Voluntary.
  • Dyrarchy in the provinces was replaced by provincial autonomy
  • This act made threefold divisions of power:  federal,Provincial and concurrent. residuary powers were to be with the governor general.
  • Dyarchy  was introduced at the centre.
  • The Federal Bank(Reserve Bank of India)  and Supreme Court of India was established in 1935 and 1937 respectively by this act

Indian Independence Act  1947

  • This Act States partition of India and the establishment of two Dominions  India and Pakistan.
  • The boundaries between the two dominion states were to be determined by a Boundary Commission which was headed by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
  • Princely states were free to join Either India or Pakistan Or remain independent
  • It provided for partition of Punjab & Bengal and separate boundary commissions to demarcate the boundaries between them.
  • Constituent assembly of each Dominion would have ultimate power adopt a frame constitution.
  • The office of the secretary of state for India was to be abolished  and his work to be taken over by the secretary of state for Commonwealth affairs.

 

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