3 States of Matter – Solid, Fluids (Gas & Liquid)

By | August 29, 2017

You come to know that matter is made up of tiny particles from Matter & Matter Properties. But we also learned from properties is that, particles have space among them along with attraction force.We are going to learn about States of Matter.

Based on the varying the space & attraction force between particles, Matter has 3 states majorly. These are called “States of Matter”. They are Solid state, Fluid state (Gaseous & Liquid).

We call Gas & Liquid states as Fluids because they can easily flow. Before that we need to know what is Rigidity & Fluid nature.

Solid,Liqui,Gas & Plasma state

Wikipedia : Solid,Liquid,Gas & Plasma state

Rigidity & Fluid Nature :

Rigidity :

Rigidity means strong in nature. You can not easily bend this, it is not flexible. For example consider a stone, tile or stick, you can bend it easily. If you use much strength, you can only break it. Solid is Rigid form of Matter.

☑️💯 Note : Solid is Rigid form of Matter, means you can’t bend it.

Fluid :

Fluid on the other side, can easily Flow. For example you can see water and other liquids flow. And also air flows as take your breath. Generally all the Liquids & Gasses are Fluids. We need a container or Vessel to keep the Fluids unlike solids, because they flow easily.

States of Matter :-

Solids :-

You know that to make stone into pieces you need a lot of energy. This is because stone is a solid. Solids have strong attraction forces among the particles, obviously with less space among them. These strong attraction forces hold them in fixed position, that’s solids won’t flow unlike Fluids.

Particles arrangement in Solids

Particles arrangement in Solids

Properties of Solids :-

  1. Solids have fixed shape and fixed volume
  2. Solids can not be compressed easily, as particles are already so close.
  3. As they are packed closely, they have high densities than liquids & Gases.
  4. Solids can not flow under normal conditions(Unless heated at high temperatures).

Liquids :-

Compared to solids, liquids has more space among particles. Particles exert less attraction force on other particles, which leads to fluid nature. These attraction forces are not enough to hold the particles in fixed positions, that’s why liquids flow.

Particles arrangement of liquid states in a container

Particles arrangement of liquid states in a container

Properties of Liquids :-

  1. Liquids has no fixed shape, though they has fixed volume. Liquid takes shape of container.
  2. Liquids can be compressed easily compared to solids. As particles are not very close.
  3. As liquids are less closely packed than solids, they have less densities.
  4. Liquids flows easily under normal conditions unlike solids.

Gas :-

Compared to solids & liquids, gases has more space between any two particles. Gas Particles motion is very random with very less attraction forces among them. Particles position & space between them varies, as they move very freely.


  1. Gases have neither a fixed shape nor fixed volume.
  2. We can compress gases much easily in comparison to liquids. Ex : LPG gas, Oxygen cylinders.
  3. As particles of gas move very freely, gasses have very less densities.
  4. Gases fill the container completely unlike solids & liquids.

☑️💯 Note:

  • Particles of Gas has maximum kinetic energy compared to any other matter state.
  • Gases have high compressibility among all the matter states.

What is Compressibility?

Compressibility is the measure of matter, that it can fitted into small volume possible. Fitting into small volumes only happens when we apply pressures. As you read earlier gases high compressibility, because…. Follow this link to read more Compression & Diffusion of Solids,Liquids,Gases.

Image Source : Wikipedia

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